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Medium: Oil »
Support: on canvas »
Year(s): 1916 »   //  1917 »
1916-1917.16
The Jack Pine
Alternate title: Jack Pine: Lake Cauchon
Winter 1916–17
Oil on canvas
50 3/8 x 55 1/16 in. (127.9 x 139.8 cm)
Exhibition History
City Art Museum, St. Louis, Paintings by Canadian Artists, Loaned by the National Gallery of Canada, November, 1918, no. 32. Traveled to: Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minneapolis, February, 1919. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, April 4–May 1, 1919. Milwaukee Art Institute, Milwaukee, May 17–April 12, 1919. Hackley Gallery, Muskegon, Mich..
Art Gallery of Toronto, Toronto, Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by Tom Thomson, February 13–29, 1920, no. 2.
British Empire, Palace of Fine Arts, Wembley Park, London, British Empire Exhibition, Section of Fine Arts, April 23–October 31, 1924, no. 240, ill. in b/w. Traveled to: Leicester Museum and Art Gallery, November 12–December 12, 1924. Kelvingrove Art Galleries, Glasgow, United Kingdom, December, 1924–January 17, 1925. City of Birmingham Municipal Art Gallery, Birmingham, United Kingdom, January 30–March 31, 1925.
Palais des Fêtes, Parc de la Citadelle, Ghent, Belgium, Exposition Triennale de Gand, June 7–August 2, 1925, no. 729.
Art Gallery of Toronto, Toronto, Inaugural Exhibition, January 29–February 28, 1926, no. 260.
Musée & du Jeu de Paume, Paris, Exposition d'art canadien, April 10–May 10, 1927, no. 236, (repr.).
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Imperial Economic Conference, July 18, 1932–January 23, 1933, no. 2.
Tate, London, A Century of Canadian Art, October 15–December 15, 1938, no. 213.
Art Gallery of Toronto, Toronto, Horatio Walker - Tom Thomson, January, 1941.
Elsie Perrin Williams Memorial Public Library & Art Museum, London, Ontario, Milestones of Canadian Art: A Retrospective Exhibition of Canadian Art from Paul Kane and Kreighoff to the Contemporary Painters, from 9 January 1942, no. 41.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Forty Years of Canadian Painting: From Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven to the Present Day, July 14–September 25, 1949, no. 89, (repr.).
Art Gallery of Toronto, Toronto, Fifty Years of Painting in Canada, October–November 1949, no. 29, (repr.).
National Gallery of Art, Washington, District of Columbia, Canadian Painting: An Exhibition Arranged by the National Gallery of Canada, October 29–December 10, 1950, no. 78, (repr.). Traveled to: California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, January 5–30, 1951. Fine Arts Society of San Diego, San Diego, February, 1951. Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, Calif, March, 1951. Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, April 4–May 6, 1951. Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, May 15–June 11, 1951.
Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Group of Seven, March 29–April 25, 1954, no. 65, (repr.).
National Gallery of Canada, Canadian Cultural Exhibition, Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, Tom Thomson, January–March 1958.
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Three Hundred Years of Canadian Art, May 12–September 17, 1967, no. 196, (repr.). Traveled to: Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, October 20–November 26, 1967.
Tom Thomson Memorial Art Gallery, Owen Sound, Ontario, Canada, First Anniversary Exhibition, May 24–June 9, 1968, no. 6, (repr. col.).
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, The Group of Seven, June 19–September 8, 1970, no. 69, (repr.). Traveled to: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, September 22–October 31, 1970.
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, The Art of Tom Thomson, October 30–December 12, 1971, no XV (repr. col.). Traveled to: Norman Mackenzie Art Gallery, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, January 15–February 3, 1972. Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, February 25–March 31, 1972. Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, April 14–May 28, 1972. Confederation Art Gallery, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, July 2–September 5, 1972.
Elvehjem Art Centre, Madison, Wisconsin, Canadian Landscape Painting 1670 - 1930: The Artist and the Land, April 11–May 23, 1973, no. 51, (repr.). Traveled to: Hopkins Center Art Galleries, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H, June 15–August 1, 1973. University Art Museum, University of Texas, Austin, Tex, August 20–October 7, 1973.
National Gallery of Canada, Rodman Hall Arts Centre, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada, Tom Thomson: The Jack Pine, September 12–October 5, 1975, no.11. Traveled to: Nova Scotia Museum of Arts, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, October 20–November 2, 1975. Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, March 31–April 25, 1976. Art Gallery of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada, May 28–June 20, 1976. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 5–December 5, 1976.
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, The Mystic North: Symbolist Landscape Painting in Northern Europe and North America, 1890 - 1940, January 13–March 11, 1984, no. 117, (repr.). Traveled to: Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, March 31–May 13, 1984.
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, Cosmos From Romanticism to the Avant-garde, June 17–October 17, 1999, (repr. col.). Traveled to: Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, November 23, 1999–February 20, 2000. Palazzo Grassi, Venice, Italy, 2000 (Title as Cosmos: From Goya to de Chirico, from Friedrich to Kiefer, Art in Pursuit of the Infinite).
National Gallery of Canada; Art Gallery of Ontario, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Tom Thomson, June 7–September 8, 2002, no. 132, (repr. col.). Traveled to: Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, October 5, 2002–January 5, 2003. Musée du Québec, Quebec City, Quebec, February 6–April 3, 2003. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, May 30–September 7, 2003. Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, September 29–December 7, 2003.
Art Gallery of Ontario, Alexander Hall, The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, Tom Thomson, September 10–November 14, 2004, no. 55, (repr. col.).
Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, Painting Canada: Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven, October 19, 2011–January 8, 2012, no. 6, Fig. 1 (repr. col. det.), p. 10, Pl. 10 (repr. col.). Traveled to: National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway, January 29–May 13, 2012. The Groninger Museum, Groninger, Netherlands, June 3–October 28, 2012.
Published References
MacCallum, J.M. "Tom Thomson: Painter of the North." Canadian Magazine 50, no. 5 (March 1918), p. 381 (repr.).
Mortimer-Lamb, Harold. "Canadian Artists and the War." The Studio 65, no. 270 (September 1915), pp. 125 (repr.) as The Jack Pine, Lake Cauchon.
Fairley, Barker. "Tom Thomson and Others." Rebel 6, no. 6 (March 1920), pp. 244–47.
"Beauty of North Shown in Colour." Mail and Empire (Toronto), 14 February 1920.
"Memorial Exhibition to Artist of North." Toronto Daily Star, 18 February 1920.
"A Canadian Artist." Ottawa Citizen, 22 February 1922.
"Fine Pictures Added to National Gallery." Ottawa Journal, 18 February 1922.
Brown, Eric. "The National Gallery of Canada: A Story of Struggle and Achievement in Establishing a Little-known Institution." Arts & Decoration (New York) 17, no. 1 (May 1922), p. 28 (repr.).
"Fine Arts From Canada." Canadian Magazine 63, no. 3 (July 1924), p. 136 (repr.).
Hind, C. Lewis. "Art and Artists: Canadian Landscape Painters at Wembley." The International Interpreter (New York) 3, no. 8 (24 May 1924), p. 250.
Lee, Rupert. "Canadian Pictures at Wembley." Canadian Forum 4, no. 47 (August 1924), pp. 338–39.
National Gallery of Canada. A Portfolio of Pictures from the Canadian Section of Fine Arts, British Empire Exhibition, London, 1924. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1924, (repr.).
National Gallery of Canada. Press Comments on the Canadian Selection of Fine Arts, British Empire Exhibition. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1924, pp. 7, 15, 20.
"Canadian Art at Wembley; Other Exhibitions." Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs, 1924-1925 (1925). Toronto: The Canadian Review Company, p. 486.
MacTavish, Newton. The Fine Arts in Canada. Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada Ltd, 1925, p. 150 (repr.).
Richmond, Leonard. "Canadian Art at Wembley." Studio 89, no. 182 (January 1925), pp. 21, no. 182 (repr. col.).
Chassé, Charles. "L'Exposition Canadienne à Paris." Le Figaro Hebdomadaire (Paris) (13 April 1927), (repr.).
"Inaugural Exhibition at the Art Gallery of Toronto." Canadian Science Monitor (8 March 1926).
Harris, Lawren. "Review of the Toronto Art Gallery Opening." Canadian Bookman 8, no. 2 (February 1926), p. 46.
Housser, Frederick Broughton. A Canadian Art Movement: The Story of the Group of Seven. Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1926, pp. 117, 120–21.
National Gallery of Canada. Press Comments on the Canadian Section of Fine Arts, British Empire Exhibition, 1924-1925. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1926, pp. 5, 13, 17, 34, 38, 41.
Lismer, Arthur. "The Art Gallery of Toronto." The Journal, Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 3, no. 2 (March/April 1926), p. 71.
Brown, Eric. "La jeune peinture canadienne." L'Art et les artistes 21, no. 75 (March 1927), p. 192 (repr.).
Dick, Stewart. "The National Gallery of Canada: Tom Thomson." Saturday Night 43, no. 42 (1 September 1928).
Grayson, E.V.K. Picture Appreciation for the Elementary School. Toronto: J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd, 1929, pp. 196–98, 275–76 (repr. col. frontispiece).
Davies, Blodwen. Paddle and Palette: The Story of Tom Thomson. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1930, p. 23 (repr.).
Salinger, Jehanne Bietry. "Peinture et litérature: L'exposition d'art canadien aux Etats-Unis." La revue populaire 23, no. 5 (May 1930), pp. 7–8 (repr.).
Onward. "Famous Canadian Pictures: The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson." Onward (Toronto) 41, no. 36 (5 September 1931), (repr.).
Robson, Albert H. Canadian Landscape Painters. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1932, p. 145 (repr. col.).
Barbeau, Marius. "Tells Remarkable Story Progress and Achievement." Ottawa Evening Citizen, 27 July 1932.
Lismer, Arthur. Outline for Picture Study: The Jack Pine. Series 1, no. 1. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1932.
Barbeau, Marius. "Morrice and Thomson." New Outlook 8, no. 3 (August 1932), (repr.).
Davies, Blodwen. A Study of Tom Thomson: The Story of a Man Who Looked for Beauty and for Truth in the Wilderness. Toronto: The Discus Press, 1935, pp. 96,107, 110–11 (repr. col.).
Robson, Albert H. Tom Thomson. , Canadian Art Series. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1937, pp. 20–21 (repr. col.).
Burgoyne, St. George. "Tom Thomson, Painter of the Wilds, Lost to Canadian Art 20 Years Ago." Gazette (Montreal), 25 September 1937, (repr.).
McInnes, G.C. "Tom Thomson." New World Illustrated 1, no. 1 (March 1940), p. 27 (repr. col.).
Buchanan, Donald W. Canadian Painters from Paul Kane to the Group of Seven. Oxford & London: Phaidon Press, 1945, fig. 43 (repr.).
Buchanan, Donald W. "Tom Thomson - Painter True North." Canadian Geographical Journal 33, no. 2 (August 1946), p. 99 (repr. col.).
Saunders, Audrey. Algonquin Story. Toronto: Department of Lands and Forests, 1947, p. 173.
"Tom Thompson [sic] and One-Tree Island." Huntsville Forester (ON), 18 November 1948.
The Arts in Canada. Ottawa: Department of Citizenship and Immigration, 1957, p. 75 (repr. col.).
Atherton, Ray. "The Man in a Canoe." Canadian Art 15, no.1 (January 1958), p. 20 (repr. col.).
Hubbard, R.H. National Gallery of Canada, Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture. Vol. III, Canadian School. Ottawa, Toronto: University of Toronto Press 1960, p. 294 (repr.).
Hubbard, R.H. The Gallery of Canadian Art, 2 Tom Thomson. Toronto: Society For Art Publications and McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1962, pp. 7, 11, pl. 3 (repr. col.).
Hubbard, R.H. The Development of Canadian Art. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1963, pp. 89–90 , pl. 154 (repr. col.).
Brown, Maud. Breaking Barriers: Eric Brown National Gallery. Ottawa: Society for Art Publications, 1964, p. 72.
Harper, J. Russell. Painting in Canada: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1955, pp. 279, 282 (repr.).
Davies, Blodwen. Tom Thomson: The Story of a Man Who Looked for Beauty and for Truth in the Wilderness. Vancouver: Mitchell Press Limited, 1967, page facing 24, 76, 87–88 (repr. col.).
Addison, Ottelyn, Elizabeth Harwood. Tom Thomson, The Algonquin Years. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1969, pp. 54, 59, 76, 81 (repr.).
Boggs, Jean Sutherland. "The National Gallery of Canada." Canadian Art 26, no. 1 (February 1969), p. 4 (repr.).
Mellen, Peter. The Group of Seven. Toronto, Montreal: McClelland and Stewart Ltd, 1970, pp. 49, 60–63, 198, 208 (repr. col.).
Reid, Dennis. The Group of Seven. Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1970. Exhibition catalogue, pp. 106–107.
Boggs, Jean Sutherland. The National Gallery of Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1971, pl. XXVIII (repr. col.).
Murray, Joan. The Art of Tom Thomson. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1971. Exhibition catalogue, pp. 45, 59, 63 (repr. col.).
Dumas, Paul. "Exposition rétrospective de Tom Thomson." L'Information medicale et paramiedicale (Montreal) (6 June 1972).
Hubbard, R.H. "Landscape Painting in Canada." In Canadian Landscape Painting 1670-1930: The Artist and The Land. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973. Exhibition catalogue, pp. 138–139 (repr. col.).
Reid, Dennis. A Concise History of Canadian Painting. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1973, p. 145.
Lord, Barry. Painting in Canada: Towards a People's Art. Toronto: NC Press, 1974, pp. 128–29.
Reid. Tom Thomson: The Jack Pine. 5, Masterpieces in the National Gallery of Canada, The National Gallery of Canada. Ottawa: 1975, pp. 17–33 (repr. col.).
Town, Harold, and David P. Silcox. Tom Thomson: The Silence and the Storm. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977, pp. 124, 125, 193 (repr. col.).
Mellen, Peter. The Landmarks of Canadian Art. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd, 1978, pp. 9, 172 (repr. col.).
Boulet, Roger. The Canadian Earth: Landscape Paintings by the Group of Seven. Toronto: Prentice-Hall, 1982, pp. 210–211 (repr. col .).
Murray, Joan. The Best of the Group of Seven. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig, 1984, p. 49 (repr. col.).
Nasgaard, Roald. The Mystic North: Symbolist Landscape Painting in Northern Europe and North America 1890-1940. Toronto, Buffalo, London: Art Gallery of Ontario and University of Toronto Press, 1984. Exhibition catalogue, pp. 180, 184 (repr.).
McMichael, Robert. "One Man's Obsession." One Man's Obsession. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc, 1986, pp. 109, 164.
Murray, Joan. The Best of Tom Thomson. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1986, pp. 78–79 (repr. col.).
Burnett, David. Masterpieces of Canadian Art from the National Gallery of Canada. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig, 1990, pp. 86–87 (repr.).
Walton, Paul H. "The Group of Seven and Northern Development." RACAR 17, no. 2 (1990), pp. 173,175, 206 (repr.).
Murray, Joan, pp. 32–33.
Bordo, Jonathan. "Jack Pine - Wilderness Sublime, or the Erasure of the Aboriginal Presence from the Landscape." Journal of Canadian Studies 27, no. 4 (1992), pp. 108–25 (repr.).
Porcelain Artist (May/June), p. 32 (repr. colour).
Murray, Joan. Northern Lights: Masterpieces of Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven. Toronto: Key Porter Books Limited, 1994, pp. 74–75 (repr. col.).
Booth, David. Images of Nature: Canadian Poets and The Group of Seven. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 1995, p. 19 (repr. col.).
Newlands, Anne. The Group of Seven and Tom Thomson: An Introduction. Willowdale, ON: Buffalo, New York, 1995, pp. 36–37 (repr. col.).
Davis, Ann. Thomson, Thomas John (Tom). Vol. 14 1911-1920, Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998, pp. 998–99.
MacHardy, Carolyn Wynne. "Inquiry into the Success of Tom Thomson's The West Wind." University of Toronto Quarterly 68, no. 3 (summer 1999), (repr.).
Wistow, David, and Kelly McKinley. Meet the Group of Seven. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 1999, p. 18 (repr. col.).
Murray, Joan. Canadian Art in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1999, p. 25 (repr. col.).
Murray, Joan. Tom Thomson: Trees. Toronto: McArthur & Company, 1999, pp. 112–13 (repr. col.).
Newlands, Anne. "Canadian Art: From its Beginnings to 2000." Canadian Art: From its Beginnings to 2000. Toronto: Firefly Books, 2000, p. 305 (repr. col.).
Murray, Joan. The Birth of the Modern: Post Impressionism in Canadian Art, c. 1900-1920. Oshawa: Robert McLaughlin Gallery, 2001. Exhibition catalogue, p. 134.
Reid, Dennis and Charles C. Hill. Tom Thomson. Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre with the Art Gallery of Ontario and the National Gallery of Canada, 2002. Exhibition catalogue, cover (repr. col. det.), 32, 83, 140–41, 149, 288 (repr. col.).
Hill, Charles C. "The Jack Pine." In Treasures of the National Gallery of Canada, David Franklin (ed.). Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada in association with Yale University Press, 2003, pp. 50–51 (repr. col.).
Silcox, David P. The Group of Seven and Tom Thomson. Toronto: Firefly Books, 2003, pp. 3, 45, 49–50, 209, 212 (repr. col.).
Grace, Sherrill E. Inventing Tom Thomson: From Biographical Fictions to Fictional Autobiographies and Reproductions. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2004, Frontispiece, Pl. 2 (repr. col.).
Newlands, Anne. Canadian Paintings, Prints and Drawings. Toronto: Firefly, 2007, pp. 318–319 (repr. col.).
King, Ross. Defiant Spirits: The Modernist Revolution of the Group of Seven. Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection, 2011, pp. 221–22, 364, 403, 404, 415, 420, Pl. 23 (repr. col.).
Whitelaw, Anne, Brian Foss, and Sandra Paikowsky eds. The Visual Arts in Canada: The Twentieth Century. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 4, 38, 43, back cover (left) (repr. col.).
Dejardin, Ian. Painting Canada: Tom Thomson and The Group of Seven. London: Dulwich Picture Gallery, 2011. Exhibition catalogue, pp. 10–11 (repr. col. det.), 18, 51–52, 73 (repr. col.), 81.
Murray, Joan. A Treasury of Tom Thomson. Vancouver, Toronto, Berkeley: Douglas & McIntyre, 2011, pp. 130–131, back cover (repr. col.).
Remarks

Letters from E.E.Godin, 15 June 1931, and T.W. Dwight, 2 February 1932, to Blodwen Davies, concur in the opinion that the sketch was done on Grand Lake (Library and Archives Canada, Blodwen Davies fonds (MG30 D38)). R.G. Tozer, Algonquin Park Naturalist, Parks Canada, adds that the background is clearly Carcajou Bay (Tozer to Murray, September 13, 1995). Charles C. Hill suggests that the sketch was painted in the north of Algonquin Park, most probably at Lake Cauchon, in the spring of 1916.

Record last updated February 16, 2016. Please note that the information on this and all pages is periodically reviewed and subject to change.
Citation: Murray, Joan. "The Jack Pine, Winter 1916–17 (1916-1917.16)." Tom Thomson Catalogue Raisonné. https://www.tomthomsoncatalogue.org/catalogue/entry.php?id=635 (accessed on September 21, 2019).